Table 1. The combination of colposcopy and staining techniques resulted in the detection of injuries in the largest number of victims described in the published literature. No investigators using state-of-the-art examination techniques and a rigorous classification system for genital injury severity have studied the criminal justice outcomes following sexual assault. Use of direct visualization only for the forensic examination does not provide adequate strategies to detect all injury; staining and colposcopy are indicated at this time. Social workers can aid the family in locating services. Pediatr Rev. The majority of the review articles on vaginal foreign bodies and the major emergency medicine, pediatric emergency and gynecology texts have limited the discussion to the types of foreign bodies and methods of extraction rather than etiologies, such as sexual abuse. Genital injury location is defined as the anatomic site of injury and includes the external genitalia labia majora, labia minora, periurethral area, perineum, posterior fourchette, and fossa navicularis , internal genitalia hymen, vagina, cervix , and anus rectum. Although skin color is a socially charged issue, it is critical that further exploration occurs across the continuum of skin pigments to ensure that those with darker skin color are not placed at a disadvantage during the forensic examination.